Glossary

NYS Information Technology Policies, Standards, and Best Practice Guidelines

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Term Definition
Account Disabled  Account is in an unusable state and can only be made usable again through an administrative action.
Address of Record  The official location where an individual can be found that is on record with a trusted or authoritative entity such as a government agency, the individual’s employer, financial institution, or utility company. The address of record always includes the residential street address of an individual and may also include the mailing address of the individual.
Advertisement  Logo, graphic, text, sound, video, or any other means intended to promote or market a service, facility, or product offered by an entity for a commercial purpose. Advertising includes messages containing qualitative or comparative language, price information or other indications of savings or value, an endorsement, or an inducement to purchase, sell, or use any company, service, facility, or product.
  • Displaying the name, logo, product or service of a non- government entity in exchange for money, services, or other special consideration, including reduced cost for a product or service may also constitute “advertising”; for example, "Powered by Company X" or "Web design by Company X."
  • Linking to external sites that provide a particular commercial product or service. A State Entity should ensure that all links to non-government websites further the agency's mission, functions, and responsibilities.
Architecture  Architecture is a set of components, their structure and inter-relationships, and the methods, guidelines, and standards governing their application and evolution over time. In the case of NYS and the NYS EA, the components being dealt with are the business, operational and information technology components of the enterprise.
Authenticated Scan  A credential based scan that provides sufficient access to allow the vulnerability scan engine to scan the operating system and all applications running on the system.
Authentication  The process of establishing confidence in the identity of users or information systems.
Authentication Method  The authentication mechanism used at the time of user account login.
Authorization  Access privileges granted to a user, program, or process or the act of granting those privileges.
Availability  The extent to which information is operational, accessible, functional and usable upon demand by an authorized entity (e.g., a system or user).
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Banner Ad Typically, rectangular advertisement placed on a Web site, above, below, or to the side of the site's main content area.
Biometrics  In computer security, biometrics refers to authentication techniques that rely on measurable physical characteristics that can be automatically checked. Examples include computer analysis of fingerprints or speech.
Bitrate  In digital multimedia, bitrate is the number of bits used per unit of time to represent a continuous medium such as audio or video after source coding (data compression). In this sense it corresponds to the term digital bandwidth consumption. While often referred to as "speed," bitrate does not measure distance/time but quantity/time.
Breach Acquiring of information by a person without valid authorization or through unauthorized acquisition.
Business Analysis and Risk Assessment  Defined by the Electronic Signature and Records Act regulation as "identifying and evaluating various factors relevant to the selection of an electronic signature for use or acceptance in an electronic transaction. Such factors include, but are not limited to, relationships between parties to an electronic transaction, value of the transaction, risk of intrusion, risk of repudiation of an electronic signature, risk of fraud, functionality and convenience, business necessity and the cost of employing a particular electronic signature process."
BYOD  Bring Your Own Device
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CIO  See, "State Chief Information Officer".
Claimant  A party whose identity is to be verified using an authentication protocol.
Clear GIF  A graphic with a unique identifier, similar to a cookie, used to track the online movements of users. Clear gifs are also known as pixel tags, web beacons, or web bugs.
Click-through  A message on a user's computer screen, requiring that the user respond to a question and, as a result, provide information by clicking on an icon.
CND  See, "Computer Network Defense".
Collaborative Computing Device Collaborative computing devices may include, but are not limited to, networked white boards, cameras, and microphones that are connected to NYS Information Technology systems for the purposes of conducting government business collaboratively.
Collect Shall have the same meaning as defined in State Technology Law §202. This shall mean to store information, including via cookie technology, for purposes of retrieval at a later time to initiate communication with or make determinations about the person who is the subject of such information.
Comptroller  The Comptroller of the State of New York, as well as his or her designee
Computer Network Defense  Using defensive measures in order to protect information, information systems, and networks from threats.
Computer Security Incident  A violation or imminent threat of violation of computer security policies, acceptable use policies, or standard security practices. A computer security incident is also defined as any event that adversely affects the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of system and its data.
Confidentiality The property that information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities, or processes.
Consolidated Log Infrastructure  The hardware, software, networks, and media used to generate, transmit, store, analyze, and dispose of log data.
Contract Award  A written determination from ITS to an Offerer indicating that ITS has accepted its bid or offer.
Control  An action taken to enhance the likelihood that established goals or objectives will be achieved (in the context of this policy, generally an action taken to reduce risk).
Cookie  A unique text file stored on a user's computer by an Internet browser. These text files are used as a means of distinguishing among users of a website and as a means of customizing the website according to the user's preferences and interests. A cookie will not include personal information unless the user has volunteered that information.
Credential  An object that authoritatively binds an identity to a token possessed and controlled by a person or entity.
Credential Service Provider A trusted entity that issues or registers tokens and issues electronic credentials.
Critical Infrastructure  Systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to New York State that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, economic security, public health or safety, or any combination of those matters.
Criticality  The degree to which a State Entity depends on the information or information system for the success of a mission or of a business function.
Cryptographic  Related to cryptography which is (1) The mathematical science used to secure the confidentiality and authentication of data by replacing it with a transformed version that can be reconverted to reveal the original data only by someone holding the proper cryptographic algorithm and key; (2) A discipline that embodies the principles, means, and methods for transforming data in order to hide its information content, prevent its undetected modification, and/or prevent its unauthorized uses.
Cryptographic Keys  Data used to encrypt or decrypt a message or information.
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Digital Object  Any discrete set of digital data that can be individually selected and manipulated. This can include shapes, pictures, string of numbers, or characters that appear on a display screen as well as less tangible software entities.
Digital Signatures  Produced by two mathematically linked cryptographic keys, a private key used to sign, and apublic key used to validate the signature. A digital signature is created when a person uses his orher private key to create a unique mark (called a "signed hash") on an electronic document. The recipient of the document employs the person’s public key to validate the authenticity of the digitalsignature and to verify that the document was not altered subsequent to signing. Digital signatures are often used within the context of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) in which a trusted third party known as a Certification Authority (CA) binds individuals to private keys.
Disclose  Shall have the same meaning as defined in State Technology Law §202. This shall mean to reveal, release, transfer, disseminate, or otherwise communicate information orally, in writing or by electronic or other means, other than to the person who is the subject of such information.
DLA  ITS Division of Legal Affairs
DOB  Division of the Budget
Domain  A region of jurisdiction on the World Wide Web (Internet) for naming assignment. The General Services Administration is responsible for registrations in the dot-gov domain and has delegated this authority to the CIO for all State Entities.
Domain Name  A name assigned to an Internet server, requested from ITS by a State Entity.
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e-Authentication  Also known as electronic authentication. The process of establishing confidence in user identities electronically presented to an information system.
e-Government  The use of computer technology to provide faster, more convenient, and better delivery of government services to customers by reducing paper processes and the need to go to government offices for the service. Customers in e- Government can include citizens, businesses, and other governments. Typically, these services are available over the Internet on a government agency’s website or a government portal, like NY.GOV ID.
Electronic Record  Information, evidencing any act, transaction, occurrence, event, or other activity, produced or stored by electronic means and capable of being accurately reproduced in forms perceptible by human sensory capabilities.
Electronic Signature  Shall have the same meaning as defined in State Technology Law §302. This shall mean "an electronic sound, symbol, or process, attached to or logically associated with an electronic record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record." This definition conforms to the definition found in the Federal E- Sign Law.
Electronic Transaction  Shall mean an action or set of actions occurring through the use of electronic technology by or with a governmental entity.
Encoder  A device used to change a signal (such as a bitstream) or data into a code. The code may serve any of a number of purposes such as compressing information for transmission or storage, encrypting or adding redundancies to the input code, or translating from one code to another. This is usually done by means of a programmed algorithm, especially if any part of the code is digital.
Encoding  The process of preparing content for sending to viewers. Audio and video are converted to a format that matches the chosen distribution technique and attributes and is also compressed.
Encryption  A technique used to protect the confidentiality of information. The process transforms ("encrypts") readable information into unintelligible text through an algorithm and associated cryptographic key(s).
Endorsement  Statement of approval of a product, service or individual business, person or any other nongovernmental entity.
Entropy  A measure of the amount of uncertainty that an attacker faces to determine the value of a secret such as a password. Entropy is usually stated in bits. See NIST 800-63 Recommendation for Electronic Authentication.
e-Record  See, "Electronic Record"
e-Signature  See, "Electronic Signature"
Explicit Indication   A signal or alert to user(s) physically present providing notice that a collaborative computing device sensor has been activated.
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Fundamental Alteration  A change in the fundamental characteristic of the product, not merely a cosmetic or esthetic change.
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Hashing  Producing hash values for accessing data or for security. A hash value (or simply hash) is a number generated from a string of text. The hash is substantially smaller than the text itself and is generated by a formula in such a way that it is extremely unlikely that some other text will produce the same hash value. Hashes play a role in security systems where they are used to ensure that transmitted messages have not been tampered with. The sender generates a hash of the message, encrypts it, and sends it with the message itself. The recipient then decrypts both the message and the hash, produces another hash from the received message, and compares the two hashes. If they are the same, there is a very high probability that the message was transmitted intact.
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IAL  See, "Identity Assurance Level".
Identity Assurance Level (IAL)  The degree of confidence in the vetting process used to establish the identity of the individual to whom the credential was issued, and the degree of confidence that the individual who uses the credential is the individual to whom the credential was issued.
Impact  The magnitude of harm that could be caused by a threat.
Incident Response  The manual and automated procedures used to respond to reported network intrusions (real or suspected); network failures and errors; and other undesirable events.
Incident Response Stakeholders  Incident Response Stakeholders are any individuals – technical or non- technical, directly responding to or overseeing incident response activities.
Independently Verified  Information provided by a user is verified to a source that is independent of the user (most often a trusted database) which finds that the claimed identity exists and is consistent with the identity and address information provided.
Information  Any representation of facts, concepts or instructions created, stored (in temporary or permanent form), filed, produced or reproduced, regardless of the form or media. This may include but is not limited to the data contained in reports, files, folders, memoranda, statements, examinations, transcripts, images, communications, electronic or hard copy.
Information Communication Technology  Shall have the same meaning as set forth in 36 C.F.R. Appendix A to Part 1194, information technology and other equipment, systems, technologies, or processes, for which the principal function is the creation, manipulation, storage, display, receipt, or transmission of electronic data and information, as well as any associated content.
Information Owner  An individual or organizational unit responsible for making classification and control decisions regarding use of information.
Information Security  The concepts, techniques and measures used to protect information from accidental or intentional unauthorized access, modification, destruction, disclosure or temporary or permanent loss.
Information Technology  Shall have the same meaning as set forth in 40 U.S.C. § 11101(6): (A) any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment, used in the automatic acquisition, storage, analysis, evaluation, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information by a State Entity, if the equipment is used by the State Entity directly or is used by a contractor under a contract with the State Entity that requires the use (1) of that equipment; or (2) of that equipment to a significant extent in the performance of a service or the furnishing of a product; (B) includes computers, ancillary equipment (including imaging peripherals, input, output, and storage devices necessary for security and surveillance), peripheral equipment designed to be controlled by the central processing unit of a computer, software, firmware and similar procedures, services (including support services), and related resources; but (C) does not include any equipment acquired by a State contractor incidental to a State contract.
Information Technology Resources  Hardware, software or services used to input, store, process, transmit, and output information, including, but not limited to, desktops, laptops, mobile devices, servers, telephones, fax machines, copiers, printers, Internet, email, and social media sites.
Integrity  The property that data has not been altered or destroyed from its intended form or content in an unintentional or an unauthorized manner.
Interested Party  A participant in the procurement process and those who are a participant in the procurement process and those who participate in the procurement process which has been foreclosed by the actions of ITS.
Internet  Shall have the same meaning as defined in State Technology Law §202. This shall mean a system of linked computer networks, international in scope, that facilitate DATA transmission and exchange.
Internet Protocol Address  A numerical identifier assigned either to a user's Internet service provider or directly to a user's computer.
IP Address  See, "Internet Protocol Address"
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Least Privilege  Granting users, programs or processes only the access they specifically need to perform their business task and no more.
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Mobile Device   A computing device in a small portable form factor that has at least one network connection interface, non-removable and/or removable storage, and is portable, including but not limited to smartphones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), tablets, laptops, smart watches and wearable devices.
Multi-Factor Authentication   Using more than one of the following factors to authenticate to a system:
  • Something you know (e.g., user-ID, password, personal identification number (PIN), or passcode)
  • Something you have (e.g., a one-time password authentication token, 'smart card')
  • Something you are (e.g., fingerprint, retina scan)
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Nonce  A value used in security protocols that is never repeated with the same key. For example, nonces used as challenges in challenge- response authentication protocols must not be repeated until authentication keys are changed. Otherwise, there is a possibility of a replay attack. Using a nonce as a challenge is a different requirement than a random challenge, because a nonce is not necessarily unpredictable.
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Offerer  An individual, bidder, or entity who has submitted an offer in response to a solicitation for commodities or services issued by ITS.
OGS  Office of General Services
Online Service  A service accessed via the Internet or other networks which provides access to citizens, businesses, business partners, other State Entities, local government entities, and the State workforce.
OSC  Office of the State Comptroller
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Patch Management  Vulnerabilities that can be addressed by a software or firmware update (patch) and applies to all software used on NYS systems.
Penetration Testing  Test of the overall strength of an SE’s defenses (technology, processes, people) by simulating the objectives and actions of an attacker.
Persistent Cookie  A cookie that remains on the user's computer.
Personal information  Shall have the same meaning as defined in State Technology Law §202. This shall mean any information concerning a natural person which, because of name, number, symbol, mark, or other identifier, can be used to identify that natural person.
Personal, Private or Sensitive Information (PPSI)  Any information where unauthorized access, disclosure, modification, destruction or disruption of access to or use of such information could severely impact the SE, its critical functions, its employees, its customers, third parties, or citizens of New York. This term shall be deemed to include, but is not limited to, the information encompassed in existing statutory definitions[1]. PPSI includes, but is not limited to:
 
  1. Information concerning a person which, because of name, number, personal mark or other identifier, can be used to identify that person, in combination with:
     
    • Social Security Number;
    • driver’s license number or non-driver identification card number;
    • mother’s maiden name; or
    • financial account identifier(s) or other information which would permit access to a person’s financial resources or credit.
  2. Information used to authenticate the identity of a person or process (e.g., PIN, password, passphrase, biometric data). This does not include distribution of one-time-use PINs, passwords, or passphrases.
  3. Information that identifies specific structural, operational, or technical information, such as maps, mechanical or architectural drawings, floor plans, operational plans or procedures, or other detailed information relating to electric, natural gas, steam, water supplies, nuclear or telecommunications systems or infrastructure, including associated facilities, including, but not limited to:
     
    • training and security procedures at sensitive facilities and locations as determined by the Office of Homeland Security (OHS);
    • descriptions of technical processes and technical architecture;
    • plans for disaster recovery and business continuity; and
    • reports, logs, surveys, or audits that contain sensitive information.
  4. Security related information (e.g., vulnerability reports, risk assessments, security logs).
  5. Other information that is protected from disclosure by law or relates to subjects and areas of concern as determined by SE executive management.
Physical and Environmental Security  Measures taken to protect systems and physical infrastructure against threats associated with their physical environment. Physical and environmental security controls include the following broad areas:
 
  • The facility's general geographic operating location determines the characteristics of natural threats, such as earthquakes and flooding; man made threats such as burglary, civil disorders, or interception of transmissions and emanations; and damaging nearby activities, including toxic chemical spills, explosions, fires, and electromagnetic interference from emitters, such as radars.
  • Supporting facilities are those services, both technical and human, that underpin the operation of the system. The system's operation usually depends on supporting facilities such as electric power, heating and air conditioning, and telecommunications. The failure or substandard performance of these facilities may interrupt operation of the system and may cause physical damage to system hardware or stored data.
Physical Infrastructure  A generic description of any area containing non end-user IT equipment and subsidiary hardware, e.g.:
 
  • Mainframes;
  • Servers;
  • Communications equipment;
  • Printing facilities;
  • Media libraries; and
  • Wiring closets.
PO  Purchase Order
Policy  A prescribed or proscribed course of action or behavior which is to be followed with respect to the acquisition, deployment, implementation or use of information technology resources.
Pop Up Ad  Type of window that appears on top of (over) the browser window of a Web site that a user has visited. In contrast to a pop-under ad, which appears behind (in back of) the browser window, a pop- up is more obtrusive as it covers other windows, particularly the window that the user is trying to read. Pop-ups ads are used extensively in advertising on the Web.
Portable Storage Device A storage device that is capable of being physically transported, including but not limited to USB/flash drives/thumb drives, external hard drives, tapes, CDs, DVDs and cameras.
Portal  The classic intranet portal site functions as an informational hub (i.e., topical tree listing of sites combined with a search engine), aggregating links that connect the portal's constituency of visitors to related information sources. Portals are typically positioned as starting points for users. Private sector examples include Google and Yahoo.
Private Information As defined in State Technology Law, shall mean personal information in combination with any one or more of the following data elements, when either the personal information or the data element is not encrypted or encrypted with an encryption key that has also been acquired: (1) social security number; (2) driver's license number or non-driver identification card number; or (3) account number, credit or debit card number, in combination with any required security code, access code, or password which would permit access to an individual's financial account. Private information does not include publicly available information that is lawfully made available to the general public from federal, state, or local government records.
Private Key A cryptographic key kept secret or known only by the holder. Private keys can be used to create e-signatures or decrypt messages or files. The same private key used to sign should not be used to decrypt.
Privileged Account A privileged account is an account which provides increased access and requires additional authorization. Examples include a network, system or security administrator account.
Procedure  A set of administrative instructions for implementation of a policy or standard.
Product  Shall include, without limitation: when solicited from a vendor in State government contracts, RFPs, IFBs, or mini-bids, any piece or component of equipment, hardware, firmware, middleware, custom or commercial software, or internal components or subroutines therein which perform any date/time data recognition function, calculation, comparing or sequencing. Where services are being furnished, e.g., consulting, systems integration, code or data conversion or data entry, the term "Product" shall include resulting deliverables.
Protest  A written challenge by an interested party to a contract award made by ITS.
Public Authority  For purposes of this standard, the definition of public authorities is as defined in POL § 103, a public authority or public benefit corporation created by or existing under any State law, at least one of whose members is appointed by the Governor (including any subsidiaries of such public authority or public benefit corporation), other than an interstate or international authority or public benefit corporation.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) The architecture, organization, techniques, practices, and procedures that collectively support the implementation and operation of a certificate-based asymmetric or public key cryptographic system. The PKI consists of systems that collaborate to provide and implement e-signatures, encryption, and authentication services.
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RA  See, "Registration Authority"
Registration Authority  A trusted entity that establishes and vouches for the identity of an applicant to a Credential Service Provider (CSP). The Registration Authority may be an integral part of a CSP, or it may be independent of a CSP, but it has a relationship to the CSP(s).
Re-issuance  A new credential is created with a new identity and/or a new token. For example, a password token is re-issued by having the user select a new password.
Relying Party  An entity that relies upon the claimant’s token and credentials or a verifier's assertion of a claimant’s identity, typically to process a transaction or grant access to information or a system.
Remote Access The ability to access non-public computing resources from locations other than the State's internal network.
Renewal  The usage or validity period of the token and credential is extended without changing the token or re-verifying the user’s identity. Examples of tokens that would be renewed or extended include hard tokens, out of band tokens, one-time passwords, and soft tokens.
Residual Risk  The remaining potential risks after all IT security measures are applied.
RFP  Request for Proposal
RFQ  Request for Quote
Risk Assessment  The process of identifying threats to information or information systems, determining the likelihood of occurrence of the threat, and identifying system vulnerabilities that could be exploited by the threat.
Risk Management  A process that includes taking actions to assess risk and avoid or reduce risk to acceptable levels.
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SE  See, "State Entity".
Security Level  The degree of trust that is associated with a user account, based upon Identification method; one of the attributes of a user account.
Sensitivity  A measure of the importance assigned to information by its owner, for the purpose of denoting its need for protection.
Service Set Identifier (SSID)  A 32-character unique identifier. The SSID is the identifier that differentiates one wireless network from another; so all access points and all devices attempting to connect to a specific wireless network must use the same SSID. An SSID is essentially the numeric name of the network.
Session Cookie A cookie that is erased during browser operation or when the browser is closed.
SFS Statewide Financial System
Significant Change  Includes but is not limited to:

1. Adding/deleting/modifying features/functionality to existing systems;
2. Substantial redesign of the existing system or environment; or
3. Other modifications that could substantially affect the system security.

Exclusions include, but are not limited to:

1. Changes to wording, adding links to an outside site, adding a document to a web site; or
2. Installing vendor supplied security patches to the underlying software or operating system; or
3. Uploading data to the database.

Single-Factor Authentication  Using one of the following to authenticate to a system:
  • Something you know (e.g., user-ID, password, memorized personal identification number (PIN), or passcode)
  • Something you have (e.g., a one-time password authentication token, ‘smart card’)
  • Something you are (e.g., fingerprint, retina scan)
Smart Card A hardware token that incorporates one or more integrated circuit (IC) chips to implement cryptographic functions and possesses some inherent resistance to tampering.
Social Media  Media that is created to be shared freely across different web publishing platforms.
SSID  See, "Service Set Identifier".
Standard  Sets of rules for implementing policy. Standards make specific mention of technologies, methodologies, implementation procedures and other detail factors.
State Chief Information Officer  Director of the New York State Office of Information Technology Services (ITS)
State Entity  Any entity that falls within the definition of “State Government” entities as defined in Executive Order 117 or "State Agencies" as defined in Section 101 of the State Technology Law.
State  State of New York.
Supervisor  An individual responsible for day-to-day management or supervision of a User.
Synchronized Text Captioning Text transcript that is synchronized or coordinated in time with the audio and video track (also referred to as synchronized text captions).
System  An interconnected set of information resources under the same direct management control that shares common functionality. A system normally includes hardware, software, applications, and communications.
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Target Implementation Environment The deployment environment in which the new or modified system is installed or fielded for use by a defined set of users after system acceptance has been completed. This is often referred to as the “production” environment.
Threat  A potential circumstance, entity or event capable of exploiting vulnerability and causing harm. Threats can come from natural causes, human actions, or environmental conditions. A threat does not present a risk when there is no vulnerability.
Token  Something that a user possesses and controls (typically a key or password) used to authenticate the user’s identity. A token incorporates one or more of the three factors of authentication: something you know (e.g., user-ID, password, personal identification number (PIN), or passcode); something you have (e.g., a one-time password authentication token, ‘smart card’); or something you are (e.g., fingerprint, retina scan).
Transport Layer Security (TLS)  This is a protocol that ensures privacy between communicating applications and their users on the Internet. When a server and client communicate, TLS ensures that no third party may eavesdrop or tamper with any message. TLS is composed of two layers: the TLS Record Protocol and the TLS Handshake Protocol. The TLS Record Protocol provides connection security and the TLS Handshake Protocol allows the server and client to authenticate each other. TLS is the successor to the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Trust Level  (1) The degree of confidence in the vetting process used to establish the identity of the individual to whom the credential was issued, or (2) the degree of confidence that the individual who uses the credential is the individual to whom the credential was issued.
Trusted Party  An entity with which the State Entity has established a business relationship through a service level agreement, memorandum of understanding, contract or other comparable mechanism. For purposes of this standard, the trusted party must be evaluated and accepted per the NYS Federation/Partner Process.
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Undue Burden  Significant difficulty or expense. In determining whether an action would result in an undue burden, state government entities must consider all resources available for use in the funding and operation of the service, program, or activity.
User  Shall have the same meaning as defined in State Technology Law §202. This shall mean any natural person who uses the internet to access a state agency website.
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Verifier  An entity that verifies the claimant’s identity by verifying the claimant’s possession and control of a token using an authentication protocol.
Video Description  Video descriptions make videos, and other visual media, accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired by providing descriptive narration of key visual elements in programs.
Visual Inspection  Inspection of valid current photo ID that contains the applicant’s picture and either address of record or nationality (e.g., driver’s license or Passport). Inspection will include comparing picture to applicant and recording ID number, address and date of birth.
Vulnerabilities  A weakness that can be accidentally triggered or intentionally exploited.
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Webcast  A broadcast produced in one location and transmitted to any PC or video-capable device connected to the internet.
White Balance  A setting in a camera that compensates for the differences in color temperature of the surrounding light. In both analog and digital electronic cameras that use CCD and CMOS sensors to capture the image, the white balance must be adjusted to ensure that all colors in the scene will be represented faithfully. It can be adjusted automatically by the camera, by selecting presets (tungsten, fluorescent, etc.) or by aiming the lens at a totally white surface (the white card) and selecting "lock white balance." Alternatively, a gray card with 18% gray is sometimes used.
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)  A group of wireless networking nodes within a limited geographic area that serve as an extension to existing wired local area networks, and which are based on the IEEE 802.11 standard and its amendments.
Wireless Technology Technology that permits the transfer of information between separated points without physical connection. Currently wireless technologies use infrared, acoustic, radio frequency, and optical.
WLAN  See, "Wireless Local Area Network"

Contact Information

Questions concerning this glossary may be directed to the New York State Office of Information Technology Services by e-mailing [email protected].